Tag Archives: environment

FEMISE MedBRIEF 23: “Developing Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation in the Mediterranean and Middle East”

Tallie Hausser, Constantin Tsakas and Karine Moukaddem

The FEMISE Policy Brief series MED BRIEF aspires to provide Forward Thinking for the EuroMediterranean region.The briefs contain succinct, policy-oriented analysis of relevant EuroMed issues, presenting the views of FEMISE researchers and collaborators to policy-makers.

The MED BRIEF “Developing Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation in the Mediterranean and Middle East “, is available here.

It is also available in Arabic by clicking here.


Our Policy Brief analyzes the social innovation ecosystems in Beirut and Tunis and discusses ways for leading to inclusive innovation that creates jobs, income and opportunities for marginalized populations, women and youth. Findings show that the lack of a legal form for social enterprises, impediments to financing and investment, scarcity of human resources for upper management and difficulties in determining the proper customer base are among the core obstacles faced by social entrepreneurs. We argue that more innovative financing mechanisms should be available for them. Educating investors in the South Med around the concept of impact measurement and impact investment would be needed. In addition, South Med governments ought to actively support social enterprises, meanwhile, corporations should be considering social procurement and including social enterprises in their supply chains. Finally, capitalizing on Euro-Med cooperation could be an inclusivity game-changer. Specifically, an EU-Med Social Impact Platform could multiply funding opportunities for South-Med entrepreneurs and provide a promising market for impact investors.

The list of FEMISE MED BRIEFS is available here.

The policy brief has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union within the context of the FEMISE program. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union

Mediterranean Youth Climate Network, FEMISE and IM conclude a partnership for the Environment and Youth in the Mediterranean

Mediterranean Youth Climate Network (MYCN), FEMISE and Institut de la Méditerranée conclude a strategic partnership in favour of the Environment and Youth in the Mediterranean

Press release – March 22 2019

Mediterranean Youth Climate Network (MYCN), FEMISE and Institut de la Méditerranée conclude a strategic partnership in favour of the Environment and Youth in the Mediterranean

MYCN, Institut de la Méditerranée and FEMISE announce their collaboration in the framework of a strategic partnership. The three institutions are committed actors in their efforts to contribute to inclusive and sustainable development models, to promote environmental and youth-inclusion values at the Mediterranean and international levels. They are aware of the need to pool means in order to act for strengthening the impact and outreach of messages, as well as to enrich knowledge.

The works of the FEMISE think-tank and of Institut de la Méditerranée show that new models are needed in the Mediterranean to bring about economic, social and environmental change and to show the whole society the potential of young Mediterranean people as solution-makers. For its part, MYCN is a Mediterranean Youth Network for Climate, a place conceived for the sharing of ideas and the implementation of concrete actions. It is also a place for the capitalization of the know-how of young people around the Mediterranean, placing them at the forefront of climate action, which is a major priority for the region.

Therefore, this partnership aims to create a multidisciplinary and dynamic virtuous circle in the Mediterranean, allowing for impactful proposals and actions to emerge. It will focus on themes ranging from the fight against Climate Change, Water-related issues and the promotion of Sustainable Development, to Responsible Entrepreneurship dynamics carried by the youth and the role of young people in Research and Innovation. Amongst other things, the partners will deploy their cooperation efforts to:

  • elaborate and develop cooperation projects for young people in the euro-mediterranean region,
  • create, animate and promote a set-up to allow for a Mediterranean ecosystem of young people with environmental impact to emerge,
  • organize joint events and publications and carry out awareness-raising in the countries around the Mediterranean.

For MYCN, FEMISE and Institut de la Méditerranée, it’s not just about talking regarding the youth, but about working with them and including them for inclusive and sustainable solutions in the Mediterranean!

For more information, please contact :

MYCN : Hajar Khamlichi, President, Mediterranean Youth Climate Network, hajarkhamlichi32@gmail.com www.facebook.com/MYCNetwork/      

Dr. Constantin Tsakas, General Manager of Institut de la Méditerranée, General Secretary of FEMISE c.tsakas@femise.org ++ 33 (0)4 91 31 51 95

Report “The Challenges of Climate Change in the Mediterranean” (2018)

FEMISE is pleased to announce the publication of the final version of the 2018 edition of the report on “The challenges of climate change in the Mediterranean: the Mediterranean in the new International Climate Agenda”, in the “Guides for Action” series. The report is a ENERGIES2050 – Institut de la Méditerranée – FEMISE coproduction.


The report (in french)  is available for download by clicking here


This report, coordinated by Stéphane Pouffary (ENERGIES 2050), Guillaume de Laboulaye (ENERGIES 2050) and Constantin Tsakas (Institut de la Méditerranée, FEMISE), presents in an updated way the realities of climate change in the countries around the Mediterranean basin and the actions implemented by stakeholders to respond to the challenges of the fight against climate change. The Mediterranean is one of our planets’ “hotspots” and the impacts of climate change are very pronounced and particularly visible on countries of the South and East shores. International mobilization on the climate issue shows there is a real awareness whether for the signatory States of the UNFCCC or for the non-state actors and subnational governments that are strongly mobilized.

However, the ambition of collective and individual commitments is unanimously recognized as very insufficient in view of the realities and challenges to which all  countries and territories concerned are and will be confronted. Moreover, beyond commitments, implementation and action remain insufficient, sporadic and fragmented. The Mediterranean is no exception and more than ever there is a need for setting up a common agenda for action as the pace of international negotiations is not the same as the speed with which changes and alterations take place.

Med Change Makers e01 : JULIE HARB, Climate Change and the Lebanese Economy

FEMISE is happy to announce the launch of its new series of interviews called « Med Change Makers ».

« Med Change Makers » are text and video-based interviews that allow dynamic FEMISE researchers to illustrate how their research addresses a policy-relevant question and contributes to the policy-making process in the Euro-Mediterranean region.



Climate Change and the Lebanese Economy

Interview with JULIE HARB, Université St Joseph (Liban), Institut de la Méditerranée et FEMISE

Julie Harb (Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, Institut de la Méditerranée, FEMISE)

The latest edition of the ENERGIES2050 / Institut de la Méditerranée / FEMISE report “The challenges of climate change in the Mediterranean” (available in May) provides insight into the specific place of the Mediterranean basin in the new International Climate Agenda.

Julie Harb (Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Policy Researcher at Institut de la Méditerranée / FEMISE) is one of the young researchers who contributed to the report. Julie Harb stresses the need for more public efforts for environmental protection and the need for a change in attitudes towards climate change.

1) With the Paris Agreement, countries committed themselves through NDCs (nationally determined contributions). All countries in the southern Mediterranean, with the exception of Lebanon, have ratified the Paris Agreement. How can this be explained?

Unfortunately, in its political agenda, Lebanon does not give a high priority to the issue of climate change and to the protection of the environment although the country begins to feel the effects of climate change. Other issues, such as the parliamentary elections, are perceived as more important. For example, ratifying the Paris Agreement would impose on Lebanon the application of the provisions of the treaty, which would influence public policies and protection mechanisms. As the authorities do not see this as a priority, the agreement is perceived as a “burden” in terms of legislation but also in terms of spending. Similarly, at the executive level, there are some initiatives such as the creation of a National Environmental Council that includes 7 ministries and 7 non-public entities that are expected to prepare plans and policies, to support, to integrate and to monitor all the policies of the ministry and all conventions and treaties. A National Coordination Unit on Climate Change (UCCC) has been set up to coordinate a total of 40 representatives who deal directly or indirectly with climate change.

2) What forces and efforts are underway for the protection of the environment and to limit the impact of climate change in Lebanon? What sectoral examples to put forward?

It should be noted that the State has made some efforts in the past in the protection of the environment through certain legislations: this is the case for example with the law no. 444/2002 which presents the only major legislation dealing directly with climate change in Lebanon or the law 341/2001 on the reduction of air pollution by transport which indirectly mentions the protection of the environment.

On the sectoral level, a renewable energy project was set up to supply 20 MW of solar energy and should have been finalized in 2016. However, to date, this photovoltaic farm supplies only 1 MW. The Ministry of Energy and Water has issued several laws concerning this sector but unfortunately no implementation decree has been added to the text.

3) What are the main weaknesses to combat the effects of climate change in Lebanon?

Despite a large number of decisions, laws and initiatives, there are still problems with the slowness of the process that will address this issue. The presence of multitudes of organisms responsible for the protection of the environment could be the cause of this slowness. The lack of coordination increases the weight of bureaucracy and leads to fragmentation of the issue. Nevertheless, I personally find that the essence of the problem lies in the lack of willingness of officials and authorities to address this issue.

4) Do NGOs and civil society contribute to change attitudes?

In recent years, NGOs and civil society have played a very important role in raising the awareness of the Lebanese people on the issue of environmental protection while creating a culture of sustainable development, but also by changing mentalities, encouraging recycling from schools and educational institutions. However, despite the great work done by these organizations at the level of the society, the latter can not sufficiently influence public policies and political decisions. More advocacy work would be needed.

5) What do you think are the priority actions to address and how?

The resolution of the waste issue, which started in 2015 and has not been able to be resolved effectively to date, should be put in first place in the environmental protection agenda by the authorities. As a Lebanese citizen, I find that this resolution requires a precise long-term plan prepared upstream, which is not the case today. A second priority would be that of cleaning the sea: indeed, in the face of the waste crisis, the state has decided to create waste zones next to the sea, which means that during storms, this waste has been dispersed in the sea, affecting the marine ecosystem and the quality of life of the populations.

In addition, Lebanese NGOs that lack support should establish more partnerships with international organizations acting on climate change that could adapt their solutions locally and increase the resilience of the Lebanese economy.


Interviewed by Constantin Tsakas



FEMISE at Plan Bleu Workshop on “Economic Instruments of Environmental Policies”

The Plan Bleu and the Mediterranean Action Plan Coordination Unit have been mandated by the Contracting Parties to prepare a new report on the State of the environment and development in the Mediterranean, to be presented to the Conference of Parties of the Barcelona Convention by end 2019.

Therefore, the Plan Bleu organized a workshop on “Major marine and coastal issues in the Mediterranean rregion : Data and trends” at the Campus du Développement (formerly CEFEB) of AFD in Marseille (France), December 12th and 13th 2017.

The objective was to form a group of about thirty thematic experts, from international, Mediterranean, and also national and local institutions, to contribute to the preparation of the report. Three experts from the FEMISE network were mobilized, helping to identify priority themes, missing information, and knowledge to be improved on economic instruments for adaptation to climate change. The objective is to provide usable content in the next report of the Plan Bleu on the State of the environment and development in the Mediterranean.

Overview of the three FEMISE presentations

Dr. Constantin Tsakas (General Manager of Institut de la Méditerranée, Secretary General of FEMISE)

Dr. Constantin Tsakas (General Manager of Institut de la Méditerranée, Secretary General of FEMISE): “South-Med strategies and instruments for climate change : what consistency of action for mitigation/adaptation and what further needs?” (presentation available here)

Climate change is a major theme for the Mediterranean countries, because of the strong interconnections between economy and the environment. These interdependencies bring out opportunities, in terms of job creation, resources, but also raise issues (seal level rise, water stress …). Southern Mediterranean countries are impacted on all fronts by climate change (marine ecosystem, biodiversity, vulnerable populations, agriculture, tourism …), and the socio-economic implications are a potential source of revolts and conflicts. Despite these challenges, many Mediterranean countries have experienced an increase in CO2 emissions per capita.

What economic instruments for environmental policies? The taxonomy of instruments identified by FEMISE researchers, as part of the work carried out for the next IM-FEMISE-ENERGIES2050 report on the impact of climate change in the Mediterranean (to be published in 2018), lists environmental goods (public procurement), regulations (quotas, standards, etc.), the creation of new markets (emission allowances, compensation for emissions exceeding allowed thresholds), the use of existing markets (taxes, subsidies), and other instruments such as energy labels and standards. On paper, all Mediterranean countries (except Libya) have a policy framework for renewable energies. These countries have adopted some of these tools in specific sectors (renewable energies, transport and tourism, and waste management).

Among the instruments for renewable energies, we first have public tenders in Morocco (for large-scale projects), Palestine, Jordan and Israel (for solar photovoltaic and wind farms). Then, targets have been defined (in terms of capacity or coverage) for heating and cooling from renewable energies. Feed-in tariffs for electricity produced from renewable energies have also been introduced, particularly in Algeria (for photovoltaic electricity). Finally, there are taxes, such as those on energy consumption, natural gas and energy-intensive products in Algeria.

Regarding the tools put in place for waste management, we mainly have instruments that use the existing market. In Tunisia, the FODEP subsidizes the environmental remediation or waste collection and recycling facilities, and a tax on the VA for producers of pollutants has been introduced. Morocco has introduced a fee for liquid dumping and waste disposal (based on the “polluter pays” principle), and an eco-tax on plastic products and packaging.

For the tourism and transport sectors, the following instruments have been identified: a tax on the registration of used vehicles in Tunisia, a subsidy for the “Moussanada Siyada” ecological labeling procedures, and a “RENOVOTEL 3” fund dedicated to the environmental upgrading of tourist establishments in Morocco.

Revenues from environmental taxes vary between Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia they represented only 1.16% of GDP in 2014, which remains insufficient in comparison with Slovenia (3.9% of GDP, for a GDP similar to Tunisia) or Morocco (1.72% of GDP). Among the MENA countries, Turkey is the country where tax revenue accounted for the largest share of GDP (3.83%), although this country is not comparable in terms of demography or tourism (the size of the country matters in tax revenues).

Efforts are ongoing at the institutional level, particularly in Morocco (recognition of sustainable development as a right for every citizen) and in Tunisia (climate change recognized in the Constitution of 2014), but also to a lesser extend in Algeria. But much remains to be done: the share of renewable energy remains insufficient in the energy mix, and only a marginal share of funding is dedicated to renewable energy, while most of the funds are still allocated to traditional energies.

Regarding future challenges and opportunities, the context (post-Arab Spring, social pressures) is to be taken into account. The key issue is the lack of resources to implement measures favoring “green” energies, while energy intensive activities remain a great source of jobs. In the long term, the challenge will be to redirect savings and employment towards projects emitting less CO2.

Preliminary recommendations include continuing adaptation to climate change, while integrating socio-economic realities. The dynamics of social and financial innovations should be used to build solutions to initiate partnerships aimed at a less carbon intensive Mediterranean based on principles of solidarity and economic convergence. Mediterranean countries should thus cooperate and exchange good practices. Finally, regarding the problem of available data (insufficient or obsolete), it is necessary to draw up a cartography of the available tools and to proceed with their evaluation, and to create an observatory on climate data to allow better monitoring of the evolution of countries.

Dr. Myriam Ben Saad (Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Université du Sud Toulon-Var, FEMISE)

Dr. Myriam Ben Saad (Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Université du Sud Toulon-Var, FEMISE): « Supporting renewable energy development using economic instrument in the Mediterranean » (presentation available here)

The MENA region holds the largest solar and wind potential in the world, which represents an opportunity in terms of market, infrastructure and energy transfer. The stakes are securing energy sources on the one hand (the region is facing water resources scarcity), and energy and economic diversification on the other hand (source of jobs, value chain potential).

After an overview of the existing literature, three variables of interest appear regularly: renewable energies, investment in these energies, and the effect of renewable energies on the environment.

Studies show that renewable energy policies and instruments help to promote and diversify these energies, as well as encourage investment (although efficiency varies depending on the type of policy implemented and the income level of countries). Such policies implemented in China have promoted the emergence of a more efficient renewable energy market, with better access to financial resources and new technologies, and taxes have promoted solar energy in Andalusian cities.

The literature is richer on the effect of renewable energies on the environment. An estimate on 24 Mediterranean countries shows that renewable energies have a strong positive effect on growth, but renewable energy policies remain insufficient in these countries. Studies identify a two-way relationship between renewable energy consumption and trade on the one hand and economic growth on the other hand. Other papers show the positive impact of renewable energies on reducing CO2 emissions and on creating jobs in the short term.

Electricity production from renewable energies doubled between 2008 and 2015, but its share in total electricity production declined due to higher power generation from fossil fuel than from renewable energies.

Source of R.E. in electricity, 2015, %

Large disparities remain among the countries. Saudi Arabia did not seem to generate electricity from renewable energies in 2015, while the share of electricity produced from these energies was over 30% of the total in Turkey and 15% of the total in Morocco .

The Mediterranean countries have diversification strategies more or less advanced: Lebanon and Syria rely almost exclusively on hydropower, while Algeria and Turkey also integrate other sources such as solar, wind, geothermal… In Morocco, renewable energy sources are balanced between wind and hydro (50-50) but a potential bias in the data is suspected (solar projects do not seem to be taken into account).

Several regional cooperation initiatives and PPPs have been conducted for renewable energy projects.

The EBRD recently financed the Benban Solar Power Plant in Egypt (2017). This project aims to reduce CO2 emissions and create jobs in a region where 50% of the population is below the poverty treshold. Also, Engie has invested in the construction of a wind farm in the Gulf of Suez (2017). In addition, the Morocco-Spain partnership has enabled the construction of a wind turbine blade manufacturing plant in Tangier, representing a potential of nearly 600 jobs.

Among the regional initiatives, the Mediterranean Solar Plan has provided a favorable political framework for the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies at regional level. The Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency aims to promote and strengthnen the adoption of clean energy practices in the region. The MENA Renewable Energy Conference is a framework dedicated to promoting and strengthening partnerships in the development and creation of solar and wind energy markets.

The policy framework is composed of regulatory policies (purchase tariff, compulsory quotas, net billing…), financial incentives and public financing (subsidies, tax credits, taxes…)

For example, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia have introduced a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity, subsidies for investment in renewable energy, as well as systems for facilitating access to credit (bonus of interest rate, guarantee fund, credit lines). Morocco and Tunisia have also introduced tax incentives (reduced tariffs or VA taxe exemption for equipment)

The identified constraints to renewable energies are the market characteristics (small size, low yelds, risk temporality, currency risk, fossil fuel subsidies, lack of strategies on energy development, etc.) and meteorological and technological risks (variability in resource availability, lack of actuarial data).

A significant increase in investment in renewable energy infrastructure, and the review of the subsidy system (in particular the removal of fossil fuel subsidies, a major constraint for the efficiency of renewable energies) are recommended.

Pr. Mohamed Salah Matoussi (Faculté de Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Tunis, FEMISE)

Pr. Mohamed Salah Matoussi (Faculté de Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Tunis, FEMISE) : « Present and potential water pricing and markets in Tunisia and in the SASS: impacts on regional allocation, food exports and technical efficiency » (presentation available here) 

A distinction is needed between the use of water in the agriculture sector (as a factor of production to be ruled by the law of scarcity) and drinking water consumed by households (as a vital good not subject to the law of the market). Decentralized water management is more relevant.

Tunisia is under severe water stress due to the scarcity and degradation of water resources (climate change, excessive exploitation of groundwater …). The available water resources have thus greatly decreased (from more than 1000 m3/year/inhab in 1960 to 410 m3/year/inhab in 2017)
The water management strategy, focused primarily on supply management (where marginal costs are rapidly increasing), consists in maximizing resource mobilization for the country development being the least constrained, with the following defined priorities : dams and mountain lakes construction and rehabilitation, recycling of wastewater…

SASS project: Presentation of the region

The Northern Sahara Aquifer System Project (SASS) is one of the largest groundwater in the world and covers Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. In 2017, it represents an irrigated area of ​​about 300 000 ha and a water mobilization between 3 and 4 billion m3. The current use of the aquifer is greater than its renewal capacity, and this over-exploitation has a negative impact on the Oasis. Sustainable water management is therefore essential. But the initial philosophy of the 3 countries concerned was to mobilize as much water as possible to produce the maximum quantity of agricultural products. There are three types of farming: farms with free access to water, public farms benefiting from subsidized water, and private farms not benefiting from subsidies. The latter are more productive than free or subsidized farms, and make the best use of the resource: private farmers have a water price-elasticity and productivity-elasticity higher than the two other types of farms.

Since this policy is unsustainable, it should be replaced by an integrated and transversal management approach for available resources (water, energy, agriculture, environment) based on the following nexus: energy pricing – water pricing – growth agricultural production and better conservation of the resource.

A new hydro-economic model must be used for water resource management. It must lead to an optimal use of water and a maximization of agricultural production, while integrating the constraint of environmental degradation cost (pumping cost and water salinity). When this cost is internalized, the optimal quantities of water consumed and irrigated area are lower than those obtained in the model where the degradation is not taken into account, but the agricultural incomes are higher (13% increase compared to initial model). In other words, we produce more when preserving the resource.

Presenting recent research (see powerpoint for more details)

An article models the problem of water resources allocation in the agricultural sector, in a world of scarcity of resources and incomplete information. Such a model must ensure economic efficiency while taking into account unavoidable constraints: utility for users at least equivalent to the one they had in the past, increasingly limited availability of the resource, and incomplete information on its use value. It is thus necessary to reveal how farmers value the water and to integrate the cost of scarcity in the pricing of the resource.

A second article assesses the impact of an increase in the price of water on the production and export of irrigated crops (dates and citrus fruit): for a 100% increase in price, date crops are more negatively impacted than citrus crops (decrease in exports by 17.5% and 4.4% respectively). Establishing appropriate water pricing for citrus farmers would conserve the resource without significantly impacting the producers. On the other hand, an increase in tariffs in areas where the date is cultivated would cause a very significant slowdown in production and exports.

A last article measures the effectiveness of date crops held by private farmers on the one hand, and by water user associations on the other. The results show that the two systems are inefficient, but private farms are slightly more efficient than the associative farms. The results also show that the salinity of water has a strongly negative impact on the productivity of date crops.

by Jocelyn Ventura (FEMISE)

When the Weather affects the economy

FEM34-23Regular flooding, heatwaves and droughts have an impact on farming and production. This will eventually cause investment to dry up and will have a major impact on consumption as commodity prices inevitably soar. Femise researchers have published a study (FEM34-23) measuring the effects of climate change in Egypt in 2050.

If no action is taken, climate change will reduce Egypt’s GDP by as much as 10% in that year. This shows just how important it is for the economy. Climate change is not just about rising temperatures and higher rainfall; increasingly extreme events must also be taken into account. Storms, heatwaves and floods have a devastating effect.

Sherman Robinson and Dirk Willenbockel, two experts working respectively in the US and the UK, joined together with Abeer Elshennawy, a professor at the American University in Cairo and coordinator of the Femise study (FEM34-23 ) entitled “Climate Change and Economic Growth: An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Analysis for Egypt”.

They endeavoured to predict climate change in Egypt by studying several scenarios.

Measures to ward off the effects of climate change

Temperatures rose by between 3°C and 3.5°C between 1960 and 1990, and they are expected to increase by another 2°C by 2050. The country’s tourist industry is likely to suffer from this, but many other sectors will also be affected. There could be significant damage to farming, which is particularly vulnerable to deviations in temperature and rainfall.

Egypt felt the full force of climate change during the heatwave of 2010. The country’s farms, which are concentrated in the Nile valley and delta, were hit hard, resulting in a sharp increase in prices. Agricultural productivity is a certain casualty of rising temperatures.

The experts also highlighted the impact of power cuts on production systems, and particularly on refrigeration systems.

This is something that could eventually put investors off. How can you envisage installing a steelworks, a cement works or a glassworks without a continuous power supply? The economists at Femise believe that rising electricity costs will have a knock-on effect on production costs.

As well as the impact on consumption and investment, we must also consider property depreciation, particularly in coastal areas, as a direct result of rising sea levels.
The Femise study recommends quickly implementing measures, such as making irrigation systems more efficient and providing better protection for coastal and plantation areas, to mitigate the impact of climate change.

These first few steps alone would enable Egypt to restrict its GDP loss in 2050 to 4%.

Photo: The High Dam in Egypt (Sad el Aali) by  Michel Guilly- Article by Nathalie Bureau du Colombier, Econostrum. www.econostrum.info.

Included it loved experience geneticfairness smells membership have.

Enregistrez-vous pour le  newsletter Econostrum:http://www.econostrum.info/subscription/

Eco-development in the light of the euro mediterranean partnership: application to the coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco

This research, entitled “Eco-development in the light of the euro mediterranean partnership: application to the coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco” wants to focus on the economic and policy causes which conduct to move to the alternative of eco-development as a new growth policy for these southern countries, to preserve their natural resources and enhance a sustainable way for growth.  Both Algeria and Morocco, despite their human, material and natural resources, have failed during the last years to attain significant results in their fight against underdevelopment and poverty. More than that, development policies applied by each of these countries are based on, in a major part, the exploitation of their coastal territories and natural resources, which are both limited.  The growth level yearly attained during the last decade, have not been more than 3% to 3.5% for each of them, less than estimated growth level of 7%, considered by many researchers as necessary to stabilize poverty and satisfy job demands. The intensive exploitation of natural resources added to the growing pressures on coastal territories has conduct to the rise of environmental damages, which enhance the costs of growth. We can observe that claimed objectives to help these South Mediterranean countries to push growth level, fixed previously by the partnership agreements with E.U., are not in their way to be realized at the level where it have been announced.
How can be thinked a global economic model, to enhance growth, preserve environment and coastal territories, in a renewed and more equitable partnership agreement with E.U.? Is it possible to clear such model, which tries to embrace all aspects of this problematic, which is not only economic, but also social, environmental and including also spatial planning?
To analyze these aspects, common to the cited growth policy experiences, this work have been conducted simultaneously, in spite of different levels of intensity in research works, at three cities (Annaba, Algiers and Casablanca), and two countries, Algeria and Morocco.
It is structured by three main parts:
The first addresses a synthesis of major theoretical questions with participate to the comprehension of the “eco development”, as an alternative economic policy based on some chosen indicators like green G.D.P. and green saving supported by a new ecological fiscal policy.

Our efforts have begun to deep analysis of these points, trying to find a way to adapt it to cases from coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco, without neglecting some important questions, in economic analysis, about the theoretical status of the concept of “territory”. At what level it can be adopted as concept by this economic and environmental analysis?
The second part tries to present coastal territories of each country, underlining main characteristics, which demonstrate their weaknesses:
1, the concentration of the major part of population in each, as indicated by chosen data;
2, the concentration of economic activities, which is underlined by institutional and constructed data, and some indicators, like “regional G.D.P”.
The third part is focusing on eco-development as an alternative way of growth for each of the two. It tries to underline, as results obtained by this research, some key elements to draw an alternative global model based on eco-development for the cases cited.
The aim is not to focus on the global economic and environmental purpose, like for example climate change. More specificaly, we try here to underline a socio-economic and environmental question, facing coastal territories of two neighbors’ South Mediterranean countries.
The target is to demonstrate that current growth policies conducted, have not only failed to realize any significant economic change in these countries, but more than that, enhance environmental damages and natural resources loses, especially in the coastal territories, by intensifying exploitations of these weak territories.
To attain a significant step of growth and most largely, development, it’s indicated to search a new alternative model for growth, based on conservation of natural resources and environment, especially in these fragile territories. Each of these countries have the possibility, taking into account the actual limits of the agreements signed with E.U., to try renewing mobilization of these agreements to turn their economic system to eco-development, in a renewed “Win – Win” strategy with E.U.