Despite their economic performances, Morocco and Tunisia are obliged to reduce unemployment mainly among higher graduates. Indeed, the employment of the higher graduates is weak and poor. Capacity of integration of first-time jobseekers among the higher graduates is still lower in Morocco and Tunisia. Thus, the rate of graduate unemployment’s reaching 30%. The increase of unemployment rate is the result of a significant discrepancy between supply and demand of employment, in spite of the government policies and all the efforts that are used to reduce the unemployment rate. This one has grown particularly in recent years. Indeed, the net creation of jobs for the higher graduates is unable to absorb the additional demand of employment.
These study shown that the type of diploma and the genre of the higher graduate remain the main determinants of integration into the labor market; the senior technicians are the most affected by the unemployment and women are much less employed than men.
From our empirical analysis reveal that returns on investment in higher education have introduced contributed to improving productivity of labor mainly in the chemical branches and engineering industries.