This research, entitled “Eco-development in the light of the euro mediterranean partnership: application to the coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco” wants to focus on the economic and policy causes which conduct to move to the alternative of eco-development as a new growth policy for these southern countries, to preserve their natural resources and enhance a sustainable way for growth. Both Algeria and Morocco, despite their human, material and natural resources, have failed during the last years to attain significant results in their fight against underdevelopment and poverty. More than that, development policies applied by each of these countries are based on, in a major part, the exploitation of their coastal territories and natural resources, which are both limited. The growth level yearly attained during the last decade, have not been more than 3% to 3.5% for each of them, less than estimated growth level of 7%, considered by many researchers as necessary to stabilize poverty and satisfy job demands. The intensive exploitation of natural resources added to the growing pressures on coastal territories has conduct to the rise of environmental damages, which enhance the costs of growth. We can observe that claimed objectives to help these South Mediterranean countries to push growth level, fixed previously by the partnership agreements with E.U., are not in their way to be realized at the level where it have been announced.
How can be thinked a global economic model, to enhance growth, preserve environment and coastal territories, in a renewed and more equitable partnership agreement with E.U.? Is it possible to clear such model, which tries to embrace all aspects of this problematic, which is not only economic, but also social, environmental and including also spatial planning?
To analyze these aspects, common to the cited growth policy experiences, this work have been conducted simultaneously, in spite of different levels of intensity in research works, at three cities (Annaba, Algiers and Casablanca), and two countries, Algeria and Morocco.
It is structured by three main parts:
The first addresses a synthesis of major theoretical questions with participate to the comprehension of the “eco development”, as an alternative economic policy based on some chosen indicators like green G.D.P. and green saving supported by a new ecological fiscal policy.
Our efforts have begun to deep analysis of these points, trying to find a way to adapt it to cases from coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco, without neglecting some important questions, in economic analysis, about the theoretical status of the concept of “territory”. At what level it can be adopted as concept by this economic and environmental analysis?
The second part tries to present coastal territories of each country, underlining main characteristics, which demonstrate their weaknesses:
1, the concentration of the major part of population in each, as indicated by chosen data;
2, the concentration of economic activities, which is underlined by institutional and constructed data, and some indicators, like “regional G.D.P”.
The third part is focusing on eco-development as an alternative way of growth for each of the two. It tries to underline, as results obtained by this research, some key elements to draw an alternative global model based on eco-development for the cases cited.
The aim is not to focus on the global economic and environmental purpose, like for example climate change. More specificaly, we try here to underline a socio-economic and environmental question, facing coastal territories of two neighbors’ South Mediterranean countries.
The target is to demonstrate that current growth policies conducted, have not only failed to realize any significant economic change in these countries, but more than that, enhance environmental damages and natural resources loses, especially in the coastal territories, by intensifying exploitations of these weak territories.
To attain a significant step of growth and most largely, development, it’s indicated to search a new alternative model for growth, based on conservation of natural resources and environment, especially in these fragile territories. Each of these countries have the possibility, taking into account the actual limits of the agreements signed with E.U., to try renewing mobilization of these agreements to turn their economic system to eco-development, in a renewed “Win – Win” strategy with E.U.